At this stage of brain development, adolescents are wired to crave risk, new experiences, social acceptance, and independence. At the same time, teens often struggle with impulse control and risk assessment. “If you want to see your teenager become even more volatile, add substances into the mix,” says Lahey.
But the very things that make the teenage years challenging can also be harnessed in powerful, positive ways. “The brain is primed right at that moment to seek novelty and boost dopamine,” says Lahey, so adults have “an incredible opportunity to push kids in a direction of positive risks that up their competence.” Let them engage in new, exciting activities that create that dopamine rush they crave. Encourage them to join a new club, try out for a part in the play, take that rock-climbing class, become a volunteer for a cause they care about, or explore the woods – any activity that catches their attention and pushes them out of their comfort zone. Exercise, time in nature, team activities, and meaningful work all support mental health.
Amplify Protective Measures
Several factors put children at increased risk for substance abuse, including adverse childhood experiences, family history of substance abuse, low academic achievement, peer culture, and lack of school connectedness. But none of these factors are destiny, says Lahey, and she wants to absolve the shame and guilt that some parents may feel when they recognize their child is in a higher-risk category for one reason or another. Instead, she wants parents to feel empowered by what they can do, starting today.
There are plenty of ways adults can amplify protective measures that will reduce a teen’s risk level. These include getting them academic support; setting clear family expectations about substance use; building healthy sleep, exercise, mindfulness, and nutrition habits as a family; and enlisting other adult allies to help, such as mentors, pediatricians, guidance counselors, and coaches. Research shows that “as long as a kid has one supportive, protective adult in their life, then they can overcome a whole bunch of risk factors,” says Lahey.
Talk About It Openly and Honestly
When it comes to drugs and alcohol, our kids need transparent, honest, and evidence-based information from trusted adults. Lahey’s advice for having these conversations boils down to this: Start early and keep it up, because the more you talk the easier it gets. Twenty-nine percent of middle schoolers and 61 percent of high schoolers report that they have a close friend who uses substances. According to Lahey, we can innoculate kids by equipping them with useful information, including refusal skills. Practice scripts they can use when they encounter peer pressure – including an exit strategy, such as a word or emoji they can text you if they want you to come pick them up.
And don’t worry about being a hypocrite if you use substances yourself, says Lahey. You can still urge your children to wait because chemicals interact differently with the adolescent brain than with the adult brain. “If you do harm to your brain during that period, there’s no going back to fix it.”
Look for ways to help them understand how avoiding substance use is in their immediate best interest – how it will positively impact their athletic and academic performance or personal goals. “Kids can feel really bulletproof, but you can help them understand how drug and alcohol use affects their hopes and dreams and goals – which, of course, requires you to know what their hopes and dreams and goals are,” says Lahey. This personal approach taps into their internal motivation and self-efficacy – or that “sense of control, agency and hope, even when the world around them feels out of control.”
Implement Evidence-Based School Programs
In Lahey’s research, she found that school-connectedness was the “only education-related variable that protected kids against every single adverse life outcome.” In other words, when kids felt safe and cared for at school, they had better outcomes on just about every measure.
Research also shows that the more invested the principal and superintendent are in prevention programs, the more invested the entire school community will be – leading to greater program efficacy. “It’s really hard for one school nurse to pull it off alone,” says Lahey. “So many of the risk situations are community-based, so the solutions are going to be community-based, too.”
Strong prevention programs have an SEL component, teach children refusal skills, and give them clear, compelling evidence that helps them understand how their brains work and how substances can affect their lives. School leaders can use the Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development registry to explore programs that have clear evidence of effectiveness.